P L A N T E S S E N T I A L E L E M E N T S
Micronutrients are essential elements that are used by plants in small quantities. Yield and quality of agricultural products increased with micronutrients application, therefore human and animal health is protected with feed of enrichment plant materials. Each essential element only when can perform its role in plant nutrition properly that other necessary elements are available in balanced ratios for plant.
Divalent manganese ions (Mn2+) is converted to Mn3+ or Mn4+ easily, therefore in the plant manganese plays an important role on oxidation and reduction processes, as electron transport in photosynthesis. Manganese deficiency has very serious effects on non-structural carbohydrates, and roots carbohydrates especially. Crops quality and quantity decreased due to manganese deficiency, and this is due to low fertility of pollen and low in carbohydrates during grain filling. Zinc uptake of soil solution in divalent cations form (Zn2+); in calcareous soils with high pH zinc uptake may be a valence ion form. In the xylem routes zinc is transmitted to divalent form or with organic acids bond. In the phloem sap zinc makes up complex with organic acids with low molecular weight, and increases its concentration.
Zinc deficiency can be seen in eroded, calcareous and weathering acidic soils. Zinc deficiency is often accompanied with iron deficiency in calcareous soils. Iron in the soil is the fourth abundant element on earth, but its amount was low or not available for the plants and microorganisms needs, due to low solubility of minerals containing iron in many places the world, especially in arid region with alkaline soils.
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